Modifying System Call Arguments With ptrace

As part of the ongoing effort we are doing in Canonical to snappify the world, we are trying to make available more and more software as easily-installable, secure, snaps. One of the things snapd does to isolate applications is to install snaps in separate folders in /snap/<mysnap>, and also creating $HOME/snap/<mysnap> for storing the snap data. Unfortunately, this changes where many applications expects data files to be as per the usual Unix conventions.

Solving this usually implies maintaining patches that change the file paths. If the $SNAP environment variable is set, the patches use it to find files in the right locations. However, this is cumbersome as upstreams are not always willing to accept the patches, at least until snap package format gets more popular. Also, in some cases we might be interested in snappifying proprietary software, where patches are not an option.

To solve these problems, Michael Terry created a library that uses the LD_PRELOAD trick to intercept calls to glibc. Although the library works really well, it has the disadvantage of not working in all cases, like on programs that perform syscalls directly without using the C library, or on statically compiled binaries.

In this post, I have explored an alternative to using LD_PRELOAD that would solve these issues by going to a lower level and intercepting syscalls using the ptrace syscall.

ptrace is used by programs like gdb or strace for debugging purposes. It is a swiss knife tool that lets us access a process’ memory and registers (the tracee) from another process (the tracer). There are many good tutorials around that explain how to use it, like this or this (from which I have borrowed parts of the code), so here I will focus on how it can be used to modify arbitrary syscall arguments. The concrete problem I had at hand was how to change a call to, say, open() so it ends up opening a file in a different path to the one originally specified by the tracee.

I have developed a proof of concept for this that can be found in github. The code is specific to x86_64, although the concepts behind are applicable to other architectures. As a word of caution, I have preferred to not do as many checks as I should to have cleaner code, so please do not consider it production-ready. I will go now through the code, function by function. Skipping the include directives and the forward declarations we get to main():

int main(int argc, char **argv)
    pid_t pid;
    int status;

    if (argc < 2) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <prog> <arg1> ... <argN>\n", argv[0]);
        return 1;

    if ((pid = fork()) == 0) {
        ptrace(PTRACE_TRACEME, 0, 0, 0);
        kill(getpid(), SIGSTOP);
        return execvp(argv[1], argv + 1);
    } else {
        waitpid(pid, &amp;status, 0);
        return 0;

Here we do all the usual stuff needed when we want to trace a process from the start: we call fork(), then the child executes ptrace() with request PTRACE_TRACEME to indicate that it is willing to be traced. After that, it sends itself a SIGSTOP signal, which makes it stop (the execve call 1 will be performed later). At that point, the parent process, which was waiting for a signal from the child, re-starts. The first thing it does is setting ptrace option PTRACE_O_TRACESYSGOOD, which makes the kernel set bit 7 in the signal numbers so we can easily distinguish between system call traps and normal traps. After that, it calls process_signal(), which is defined as

static void process_signals(pid_t child)
    const char *file_to_redirect = "ONE.txt";
    const char *file_to_avoid = "TWO.txt";
    while(1) {
        char orig_file[PATH_MAX];
        /* Wait for open syscall start */
        if (wait_for_open(child) != 0) break;
        /* Find out file and re-direct if it is the target */
        read_file(child, orig_file);
        if (strcmp(file_to_avoid, orig_file) == 0)
            redirect_file(child, file_to_redirect);
        /* Wait for open syscall exit */
        if (wait_for_open(child) != 0) break;

This function is the main loop of the tracer. It waits for the open() syscall from the child to be started, and for it to exit (ptrace signals us both events) by calling wait_for_open(). When an open() call is detected, we read the file that the child wants to open in read_file(), and then we compare with string “TWO.txt”. If there is a match, we change the syscall arguments so “ONE.txt” is opened instead. Next we analyze the different functions that perform the low level stuff, and that contain architecture specific parts:

static int wait_for_open(pid_t child)
    int status;
    while (1) {
        ptrace(PTRACE_SYSCALL, child, 0, 0);
        waitpid(child, &status, 0);
        /* Is it the open syscall (sycall number 2 in x86_64)? */
        if (WIFSTOPPED(status) && WSTOPSIG(status) & 0x80 &&
            ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKUSER, child, sizeof(long)*ORIG_RAX, 0) == 2)
            return 0;
        if (WIFEXITED(status))
            return 1;

wait_for_open() is executed until an open() system call is detected. By calling ptrace with argument PTRACE_SYSCALL, we let the child continue until the next signal or syscall enter/exit. The first time this happens the child, which was stopped after sending itself SIGSTOP, continues its execution and calls execve(). The parent then waits for signals from the child. If the child has stopped due to the signal, the signal number has the 7th bit set (should happen if the signal was triggered due to a syscall as we have set PTRACE_O_TRACESYSGOOD option), and it is the open() syscall (system call number 2 for x86_64), then we return with status 0. If the child has actually exited, the return value is 1. If nothing of this happens, we wait for the next signal. Here we are using PTRACE_PEEKUSER request, which lets us access the tracee user area. This area contains an array with the general purpose registers, and we use offsets defined in <sys/reg.h> to access them. When performing a syscall, RAX register contains the syscall number. However, we use ORIG_RAX offset to grab that number instead of the also existing RAX offset. We do this because RAX is also used to store the return value for the syscall, so the kernel stores the syscall number with offset ORIG_RAX and the return value with offset RAX. This needs to be taking into account especially when processing the exit of the system call. More information can be found here.

Next function is

static void read_file(pid_t child, char *file)
    char *child_addr;
    int i;
    child_addr = (char *) ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKUSER, child, sizeof(long)*RDI, 0);
    do {
        long val;
        char *p;
        val = ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKTEXT, child, child_addr, NULL);
        if (val == -1) {
            fprintf(stderr, "PTRACE_PEEKTEXT error: %s", strerror(errno));
        child_addr += sizeof (long);
        p = (char *) &val;
        for (i = 0; i < sizeof (long); ++i, ++file) {
            *file = *p++;
            if (*file == '\0') break;
    } while (i == sizeof (long));

The read_file() function uses PTRACE_PEEKUSER as in the previous function to retrieve the first argument to the call function, which is the address of the string with the file name. This parameter is stored in the RDI register. Then it uses PTRACE_PEEKTEXT ptrace request, which lets us copy over data from the traced process’ memory. This is performed by words, so we do this in a loop until we find a null byte that indicates the end of the string.

The last function is

static void redirect_file(pid_t child, const char *file)
    char *stack_addr, *file_addr;
    stack_addr = (char *) ptrace(PTRACE_PEEKUSER, child, sizeof(long)*RSP, 0);
    /* Move further of red zone and make sure we have space for the file name */
    stack_addr -= 128 + PATH_MAX;
    file_addr = stack_addr;
    /* Write new file in lower part of the stack */
    do {
        int i;
        char val[sizeof (long)];
        for (i = 0; i < sizeof (long); ++i, ++file) {
            val[i] = *file;
            if (*file == '\0') break;
        ptrace(PTRACE_POKETEXT, child, stack_addr, *(long *) val);
        stack_addr += sizeof (long);
    } while (*file);
    /* Change argument to open */
    ptrace(PTRACE_POKEUSER, child, sizeof(long)*RDI, file_addr);

The redirect_file() function is the most interesting one of this program. It modifies the argument to the open system call, forcing the child to open a different file to the one it originally specified. The main problem with this is that we need to modify the child’s memory space so the new file name is used by the kernel. We can change the tracee’s memory easily by using PTRACE_POKETEXT, the issue is, where can we store it?

A possible option is to save the original string using PTRACE_PEEKTEXT, then overwrite it by using PTRACE_POKETEXT. When we get called after the sycall exits, we copy back the original data. This can work fine in some cases, but it can be problematic if the new file name is longer than the original. We could be overwriting data that is used by other threads, which are not necessarily stopped so they could access that data while the kernel is processing the call. Or that data we are overwriting could be part of another parameter to the syscall, which would not happen for open(), but it is possible for other syscalls like link(). Finally, there is also the possibility that the string we are trying to modify is in a read only segment. Therefore, this is not a safe option.

After noticing this, I considered the option of adding a read-write segment to the binary under study, or to resize an existing one. However, I found there are not that many tools to do this, and those that apparently could do the job like ERESI, were not very intuitive 2. Also, we would need to find out where the new segment gets loaded to know where to write, which would complicate the code. Furthermore, I wanted to avoid modifying the binary if possible.

Finally, I concluded that the stack was exactly what I needed: it is of course RW, and a reference address can be found by simply looking at the RSP register. What we have to do is make sure we write in a safe part of the stack. This can be performed by writing to addresses lower than the RSP (that is, the free part of the stack). To achieve this, we “reserve” stack memory so we can write a string of up to PATH_MAX length, and we add up 128 bytes for the red zone (this size is specified by the x86_64 ABI). Note also that syscalls do not write on the process stack: one of the very first things that is done by the Linux kernel syscalls entry point is to switch RSP to a kernel stack. This approach has also the advantage of being automatically thread-friendly, as each one has its own stack. On the other hand, there is the possibility of writing outside the stack. However that risk is quite small nowadays, as stacks of user space programs tend to be big and typically auto-grow on page fault. Another advantage is that we do not need to save and recover memory areas at enter/exit of the syscall, as the tracee should not write anything in the used memory area.

Once it is decided where to write, the implementation is straightforward: first we use PTRACE_PEEKUSER to get the RSP value of the tracee. Then, we write the new file name to a pointer lower than the RSP calculated as explained in the previous paragraph. The data is written by using PTRACE_POKETEXT, word by word. Finally, we change the child’s RDI register so it points to the new address.

Now we can give the program a try. I created a couple of files with content:

$ cat ONE.txt 
This is ONE.txt
$ cat TWO.txt 
This is TWO.txt

Executing the same cat command using redirect we have:

$ gcc redirect.c -o redirect
$ ./redirect cat ONE.txt 
This is ONE.txt
$ ./redirect cat TWO.txt 
This is ONE.txt

Things work as publicized: we modify the file opened by the cat in case it tries to show the content of “TWO.txt”.


As has been seen, the code to make this is remarkably small, which shows the power of the ptrace call. There are indeed parts of this that are very architecture specific, but that is mostly the name of the registers and maybe the red zone size, so it should be relatively straightforward to make it multi-architecture by adding some macros.

Another appreciation is that the example is for the open() syscall, but this technique can be applied to arbitrary arguments which are passed to any syscall as pointers to data in the traced process.

To finish, the main drawback for this solution is performance, as we have to stop (twice) for each syscall invoked by the child, with all the context switches that implies. A possible solution would be to use ptrace in combination with seccomp and seccomp Berkeley Packet Filters, which apparently make possible for the tracer to specify the syscalls that would provoke a trap. That would be, however, matter for another post.

  1. The C standard guarantees that the argv array ends with a NULL pointer, so we can simply use argv + 1 as second argument to execve.
  2. Note that to modify/add sections is actually easy using objcopy, but here we need to change the elf binary segments to modify what gets loaded into memory.